About Bayezid I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire

Bayezid I (Ottoman: بايزيد اول, Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman: ییلدیرم), "the Thunderbolt", Serbian: Бајазит / Bajazit; 1360, Bursa – March 8, 1403, Akşehir, Turkey) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, then Rûm, from 1389 to 1402. He was the son of Murad I and Valide Sultan Gülçiçek Hatun who was of ethnic Greek descent.

Bayezid ascended to the throne following the death of his father Murad I, who was killed by Serbian nobleman Miloš Obilić during (June 28), or immediately after (June 29), the Battle of Kosovo in 1389. With this battle, Serbia had become a vassal of the Ottoman Empire. A year later, Bayezid took as a wife Princess Olivera Despina, the daughter of Prince Lazar of Serbia, who also lost his life in Kosovo. Bayezid recognized Stefan Lazarević, the son of Lazar, as the new Serbian leader (later despot), with considerable autonomy.

Sultan Bayezid 1

(1360-1403) Ottoman bey/sultan 1389-1403. His byname was Yildirim, "Thunderbolt".
Bayezid represents both a continuation of the building of state structures in the empire, as well as the most dramatic downturn so far in its history.
For the empire as a whole he established the first centralized state. His main achievements, however, were realized in Asia. Although he successfully completed (inevitable because of his opponents' actions) many important military campaigns in Europe, he put most of his emphasis on widening Ottoman suzerainty over Turkman rulers in Anatolia. Various emirates were annexed into the empire.
This consolidation policy, however, brought him into direct conflict with Timur Lenk. The result of this was a total defeat for Beyazid, wand, within a short time, disintegration of the empire as a result.
Biography
Around 1360: Born as son of of sultan Murad 1.
1391: An 8 year long blockade against Constantinople begins.

Bayezid I

Bayezid I (Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد اول‎; Turkish: 1. Beyazıt; nicknamedYıldırım (Ottoman Turkish: ییلدیرم), "The Thunderbolt[1]"; 1360 – 8 March 1403) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1389 to 1402. He was the son ofMurad I[2][3] and Gülçiçek Hatun. He built one of the largest armies in the known world at the time and unsuccessfully besieged Constantinople. He was defeated and captured by Timur at the Battle of Ankara in 1402 and died in captivity in March 1403.

Biography
The first major role of Bayezid was as governor of Kütahya, a city that was conquered from the Germiyanids. He was an impetuous soldier, earning the nickname of Lightning in a battle against the Karamanids.

Sultan Murad I

Murat I (or Murad I) is one of the sultans who ruled the Ottoman Empire in the 14th century. He was also known as sultan Murad Hudavendigar Han. He was born in 1326, ascended to throne in 1360, and died in 1389. His father was Orhan Gazi and his mother Nilufer Hatun.
When Murad I ascended the throne in 1360, his sons, Ibrahim and Halil, rebelled against him while he was on an expedition. He returned home and stopped this uprising immediately, killing his sons. After this incident, he passed a law forbidding crown princes to be appointed as viziers or grand viziers. In 1373, this time his 14 years old son, Savci Bey, rebelled against the sultan but he also shared the same faith with his brothers.

Murad I

Murad I, (born 1326?—died June 20/28 or Aug. 28, 1389, Kosovo) Ottoman sultan who ruled from 1360 to 1389. Murad’s reign witnessed rapid Ottoman expansion in Anatolia and the Balkans and the emergence of new forms of government and administration to consolidate Ottoman rule in these areas.
Murad ascended the throne in succession to his father, Orhan. Shortly after Murad’s accession, his forces penetrated western Thrace and took Adrianopleand Philippopolis and forced the Byzantine emperor John V Palaeologus to become a vassal. Adrianople was renamed Edirne, and it became Murad’s capital. In 1366 a crusade commanded by Amadeus VI of Savoy ... (100 of 413 words)

About Murad I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire

Murad I

Murad I (Ottoman Turkish: مراد اول‎) (Turkish: I. Murat Hüdavendigâr) (nicknamed Hüdavendigâr, from Persian خداوندگار Khodāvandgār, "the devotee of God" – but meaning "sovereign" in this context) (29 June 1326,Amasya – 15 June 1389, Kosovo Field) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1362 to 1389. He was a son of Orhan and the Valide Nilüfer Hatun.

Orhan

Orhan, also called Orhan Gazi, Orhan also spelled Orkhan(born 1288—died 1360) the second ruler of the Ottoman dynasty, which had been founded by his father,Osman I. Orhan’s reign (1324–60) marked the beginning of Ottoman expansion into the Balkans.
Under Orhan’s leadership, the small Ottoman principality in northwesternAnatolia continued to attract Ghazis (warriors for the Islamic faith) from surrounding Turkish emirates fighting against Byzantium. In 1324 the Byzantine town of Brusa (later Bursa) fell to the Ottomans, followed by Nicaea (modern İznik) in 1331 and Nicomedia (modern İzmit) in 1337.

Orhan of the Ottoman Empire

Orhan Gazi (Ottoman Turkish: اورخان غازی، اورخان بن عثمان بن ارطغرل‎; Turkish:Orhan Gazi; 1281 – March 1362) was the second bey of the nascentOttoman Sultanate (then known as the Ottoman Beylik or Emirate) from 1323/4 to 1362. He was born in Söğüt, as the son of Osman Gazi andMalhun Hatun. His grandfather was Ertuğrul, and his grandmother wasHalime Hatun.

In the early stages of his reign, Orhan focused his energies on conquering most of northwestern Anatolia. The majority of these areas were underByzantine rule and he won his first battle, at Pelekanon, against theByzantine Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos. Orhan also occupied the lands of the Karasids of Balıkesir and the Ahis of Ankara.

Osman I

Osman declared the independence of his own small kingdom from the Seljuk Turks in 1299. The westward drive of the Mongol invasions had pushed scores of Muslimstoward Osman's Anatolian principality, a power base that Osman was quick to consolidate. As the Byzantine Empiredeclined, the Ottoman Empire rose to take its place.

Founding an empire
Ertuğrul, Osman's father, led his Kayi tribe west into Anatolia, fleeing Mongol belligerence. Under the auspices of the Seljuks of Rum, he founded a town known as Sogut. This location was auspicious, as the wealthy Byzantine Empire was reeling in the West, and Muslim forces in the East were splintering under Mongol aggression. Baghdad had been sacked by Hulagu Khan in 1258, the very year Osman I was born.

Sultan Osman Gazi

The founder and the first sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Osman, was born in 1258 AD in Sogut, near Bursa. He was one of the three sons of Ertugrul Gazi, and his mother was Halime Hatun. Osman Gazi was only 23 years old when he took the control of Kayi Clan in Sogut and than ascended the throne after the death of his father, ruling for 27 years until his death in 1326.
After his ascension to throne, he gathered several Turcoman groups around himself and fought against Byzantines, collaborating with Alaaddin Keykubat of the Seljuks. When the Seljuk Empire remained rulerless after the exile of Alaaddin, Osman Gazi reunited them under his rule in 1299 marking the history as the foundation of theOttoman Empire.

Osman I in Ottoman Empire

Osman I (1259-1326) was the leader of a tribe of conquering warriors, who formed an independent state out of which arose the great Ottoman Empire.

Osman I

Osman Gazi (Ottoman Turkish: عثمان غازى‎ ʿOsmān Ġāzī; or Osman Bey orOsman Alp); (died 1323/4),[1][2] sometimes transliterated archaically asOthman or Ottoman or Atman (from the contemporary Byzantine Greek version of his name, Άτμαν), was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the Ottoman dynasty. He and the dynasty bearing his name later established and ruled the nascent Ottoman Empire (then known as the Ottoman Beylik or Emirate). The state, while only a small principality during Osman's lifetime, transformed into a world empire in the centuries after his death.[4] It existed until the abolition of the sultanate in 1922, or alternatively the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923 or the abolition of the caliphate in 1924.

Biography: The sultan who never ruled

Had destiny followed a different course, Prince Ertugrul Osman would have been the Sultan and Caliph of the Ottoman Empire. When he died in Istanbul at the age of 97 in September 2009, his funeral at the magnificent Sultan Ahmad mosque was attended by high government officials and thousands of ordinary Turkish citizens who mourned the passing of an icon linking them to their glorious past. Many Turks, looking past the decadence of the Empire in its waning days, have developed a feeling of nostalgia for the glory days when mighty Sultans ruled a vast empire, stretching from North Africa to parts of Eastern Europe, from their majestic palaces on the Bosporus.

Ertuğrul

Ertuğrul (Ottoman Turkish: ارطغرل‎, Erṭoġrıl; often with the title Gazi) (died c. 1280) was the father of Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire. While his historicity is proven by coins minted by Osman I which identify Ertuğrul as the name of his father, nothing else is known for certain about his life or activities.[1] According to Ottoman mythic tradition,[2] he was the son of Suleiman Shah, leader of the Kayı tribe of Oghuz Turks, who fled from eastern Iran to Anatolia to escape the Mongol Conquests. According to this legend, after the death of his father, Ertuğrul and his followers entered the service of the Seljuks of Rum, for which he was rewarded with dominion over the town of Söğüt on the frontier with the Byzantine Empire.[3] This set off the chain of events that would ultimately lead to the founding of the Ottoman Empire. Like his son, Osman, and their future descendants, Ertuğrul is often referred to as a Ghazi,[4] a heroic champion fighter for the cause of Islam.

Art of the Ottomans (before 1600)

At the time of its foundation in the early fourteenth century, the Osmanli or Ottoman state was one among many small principalities that emerged as a result of the disintegration of the Seljuq sultanate in Anatolia and subsequent instability caused by Mongol rule. This embryonic Ottoman state, located on the frontiers of the Islamic world, gradually absorbed former Byzantine territories in Anatolia and the Balkans. In 1453, this expansion culminated in the Ottoman capture of Constantinople, the great capital of Eastern Christendom. With the conquest of the Mamluk empire in 1517, the Ottomans ruled over the most powerful state in the Islamic world. By the middle of the sixteenth century, continued military success in an area extending from Central Europe to the Indian Ocean gave the Ottomans the status of a world power.
With the conquest of the Mamluk empire in 1517, the Ottomans ruled over the most powerful state in the Islamic world.

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