Mustafa II

He was born at Edirne Palace a son of sultan Mehmed IV (1648–87) and Mah-Para Ummatullah Rabia Gül-Nush Valide Sultan, originally named Evemia,[1] who was of Greek Cretandescent.[2][3][4] Mustafa II abdicated in favor of his brotherAhmed III (1703–30) in 1703.

Military Campaigns
During his reign the Great Turkish War, which had started in 1683, was still going on. After the failure of the second Siege of Vienna (1683) the Holy League had captured large parts of the Empire's territory in Europe. The Habsburg armies came as far asNis, modern-day Serbia, before being pushed back across the Danube by 1690. Sultan Mustafa II was determined to recapture the lost territories in Hungary and therefore he personally commanded his armies.

Ahmed II

Ahmed II bin Ibrahim bin Ahmed bin Mehmed (Ottoman Turkish: احمد ثانى Aḥmed-i sānī) (25 February 1643 – 6 February 1695) was the Sultanof the Ottoman Empire from 1691 to 1695. Ahmed II was born at Topkapı Palace, Constantinople, the son of Sultan Ibrahim (1640–48) by Hatice Muazzez Valide Sultan, and succeeded his brother Suleiman II (1687–91) in 1691.

Reign
During his short reign, Sultan Ahmed II devoted most of his attention to the wars against the Habsburgs and related foreign policy, governmental and economic issues. Of these, the most important were the tax reforms and the introduction of the lifelong tax farm system (malikane) (see tax farming). Following the recovery of Belgrade under his predecessor,Suleiman II, the military frontier reached a rough stalemate on the Danube, with the Habsburgs no longer able to advance south of it, and the Ottomans attempting, ultimately unsuccessfully, to regain the initiative north of it.

Suleiman II

Suleiman II bin Ibrahim bin Ahmed bin Mehmed (April 15, 1642 – June 22/23 1691) (Ottoman Turkish: سليمان ثانى Süleymān-i sānī) was theSultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1687 to 1691. After being brought to the throne by an armed mutiny, Suleiman and his grand vizier Fazıl Mustafa Pasha were successfully able to turn the tide of the War of the Holy League, reconquering Belgrade in 1690, as well as carrying out significant fiscal and military reforms.

Early life
The younger brother of Mehmed IV (1648–87), Suleiman II was born atTopkapı Palace in Constantinople and had spent 46 years of his life in thekafes (cage), a kind of luxurious prison for princes of the blood within theTopkapı Palace (it was designed to ensure that none could organize a rebellion).
His mother was a Serb woman originally named Katarina, known as Saliha Dilaşub Sultan.[1][2][3]
Ottoman–Habsburg War

Mehmed IV

Mehmed IV (Ottoman Turkish: محمد رابع Meḥmed-i rābiʿ; Modern Turkish:IV. Mehmet; also known as Avcı Mehmed, Mehmed the Hunter; January 2, 1642 – January 6, 1693) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. He came to the throne at the age of seven after his father was overthrown in a coup. Mehmed went on to become the second longest reigning sultan in Ottoman history.[1]

Murat IV

Sultan Murad IV was born in June 26, 1612 in Istanbul. His father is Sultan Ahmet I and his mother is Mahpeyker Kosem Sultana. His mother is Greek originated. Murad was a tall, huge man with a round face. He is one of the most powerful sultans of the Ottoman history. He was very good at archery. He was so intelligent, strong, courageous and energetic. He proved his strength in the wars he had taken place. Murad was a very religious man and he called the Seyhulislam Yahya Efendi (Minister of Religious Affairs) as "father". He had forbidden tobacco and alcohol. In his period to go out at nights was forbidden too.

MURAT IV

Murad IV of Turkey (1612-1640) was both strong-willed and physically strong. His dominant mother had tried to make him abhor women, and all his life they induced both lust and hate in Murad. His cruelty became legendary, and, in his later years, he killed people, especially females, just because off ill humour or a whim.

Murad IV

Murad IV (Ottoman Turkish: مراد رابع‎, Murād-ı Rābiʿ; July 26/27, 1612 – February 8, 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. Murad IV was born in Istanbul, the son of SultanAhmed I (r. 1603–17) and the ethnic Greek Kösem Sultan.[1] Brought to power by a palace conspiracy in 1623, he succeeded his uncle Mustafa I(r. 1617–18, 1622–23). He was only 11 when he took the throne. His reign is most notable for the Ottoman–Safavid War (1623–39), of which theoutcome would permanently part the Caucasus between the two Imperial powers for around two centuries, while it also roughly laid the foundation for the current Turkey - Iran - Iraq borders.

Biography
In the early years of Murad's reign, he was under the control of his relatives. His absolute rule started around 1632, when he took the authority and repressed all the tyrants, and he re-etablished the supremacy of Sultan.

Osman II: Martyr or tyrant?

There is history, and there is legend. And some events are made into legends though they are parts of history. Since the cast of figures and events in Turkish history is utterly vast and our imagination boundless, we have an abundance of modern legends even though these are times that are (supposed to be) disciplined by all sorts of information, documents and records.

Especially classical history.

On the one hand, there is a sea of archives dating from the Ottomans, who were rigorous in recording every single object belonging to the state and an objective historiography built by virtue of these archives.

On the other, colossal legends, black or white...

When approached from this particular perspective, Ottoman history appears to be heaven on earth for novelists and cinematographers, as it is for historians and sociologists.

The Ottoman dream versus the Ottoman dread

Osman II

Osman II (Ottoman Turkish: عثمان ثانى‎ ‘Osmān-i sānī; November 3, 1604 – May 20, 1622), commonly known in Turkey as Genç Osman ("Osman the Young" in English), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1618 until his death by regicide on 20 May 1622.
Biography
Osman II was born at Topkapı Palace, Constantinople, the son of SultanAhmed I (1603–17) and his first wife Mahfiruz Hatice Sultan, according to some sources either a Greek[1][obsolete source] or Evdoksiya, aSerbian.[2][unreliable source] According to later traditions, at a young age, his mother had paid a great deal of attention to Osman's education, as a result of which Osman II became a known poet and would have mastered many languages, including Arabic, Persian, Greek, Latin, and Italian; this has been refuted since.[3]
Osman's failure to capture the throne at the death of his father Ahmed may have been caused by the absence of a mother to lobby in his favor, his mother being possibly in exile in Edirne or already dead.

Mad Monarchs: Sultan Mustafa I of the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire produced some of the brilliant rulers of Turkey. Their names have come down through the centuries; Orhan, Mehmed the Conqueror, Suleiman the Magnificent. But several of the nation's rulers began precarious lives as young princes, trapped behind the harem's walls, never knowing how fate might alter from one day to the next and if they might survive the turmoil that often followed the death of the reigning monarch. Sultan Mustafa I is a prime example of an Ottoman ruler who likely lived a tortured existence from boyhood.

Mustafa I

Mustafa I (1591 – January 20, 1639) (Ottoman Turkish: مصطفى اول‎), often called Mustafa the Mad, was the son of Mehmed III and was theSultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1617 to 1618 and from 1622 to 1623.
Biography
He was born in the Manisa Palace, as the younger brother of Ahmed I(1603–17). His mother was an Abkhazian concubine whose name is lost.[1]
Before 1603 it was customary for an Ottoman Sultan to have his brothers executed shortly after he gained the throne (Mustafa's fatherMehmed III had executed 19 of his own brothers). But when the thirteen-year-old Ahmed I was enthroned in 1603, he spared the life of the twelve-year-old Mustafa.[2]

About Ahmed I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire

Biography
Ahmed I's mother was Valide Sultan Handan Sultan, an ethnic Greek who was originally named Helena. He was born at Manisa Palace. He succeeded his father Mehmed III (1595–1603) in 1603 at age 13. He broke with the traditional fratricide and sent his brother Mustafa to live at the old palace at Bayezit along with their grandmother Safiye Sultan. He was known for his skills in fencing, poetry, horseback riding, and fluency in numerous languages.

He was married twice, to Valide Sultan Mahfiruze Hatice Sultan, originally named Maria, a Greek, mother of Osman II, and to Valide Sultan Kadinefendi Kösem Sultan or Mahpeyker, originally named Anastasia, a Greek, mother of Murad IV and Ibrahim I. He married with Mahpeyker and had five children from her: Murad IV, Ibrahim I, Ayşe Sultan, Shahzade Suleiman and Shahzade Kasim. A half-brother of Ahmed, Yahya, resented his accession to the Ottoman throne in 1603, and spent his life scheming to become Sultan.

Ahmet I

Sultan Ahmed I was born on 18th April 1590 in Manisa. His father was Sultan Mehmet III, his mother was Handan Sultana. He was very well educated, he had spoken Arabic and Persian fluently. He was a very brilliant rider, and a fencer. He was a successful soldier and he was very fond of archery and hunting. He had dressed up so modest. He came to throne after his father's death on 21st December 1603. Sultan Ahmed I was the first sovereign who organised the administrative regulations since Suleyman the Magnificent. He was a political genius, although he ascended throne very young he administrated the empire very successfully. In Sultan Ahmed's life the number 14 was important. He came to throne in the age of 14, he reigned for 14 years and he was the 14th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He had died at the age of 28 because of typhus (22nd November 1617).
His Wifes : Hatice Mahfiruz Sultana, Kosem Sultana (Mahpeyker Sultan), Fatma Haseki

Ahmed I

Ahmed I (Ottoman Turkish: احمد اول‎ Aḥmed-i evvel; Turkish: I. Ahmed; April 18, 1590 – November 22, 1617) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empirefrom 1603 until his death in 1617. Ahmed's reign is noteworthy for marking the end of the Ottoman tradition of royal fratricide; henceforth Ottoman rulers would no longer execute their brothers upon accession to the throne.[1] He is also well known for his construction of the Blue Mosque, one of the most famous mosques in Turkey.

Reign
Ahmed was the son of Mehmed III and Handan Sultan, a Greek slave. When he ascended the throne, his aunts Ayşe Sultan, Fatma Sultan, Mihrimah Sultan, Fahriye Sultan, Mihriban Sultan, and Rukiye Sultan as well as his powerful grandmother Safiye Sultan were still alive. He had two siblings, Mustafa I and a daughter of Mehmed III which was married toKara Davud Pasha.

Sultan Murad III

Sultan Murad III was born in 1546 in Manisa. His father was sultan Selim II and mother was Afife Nur Banu Hatun, a former Venetian nobel lady. He received a serious education from theologians and scholars, he spoke fluent Arabic and Persian. Murad III ascended to throne in 1574 after the death of his father. Murad III was very religious thus he led a life based on the rules of Sharia. He respected religious orders and their leaders, and interested in mysticism and poetry. At the same time he liked alcohol and parties at the Harem, he never left Istanbul during his rule which lasted for about 21 years.

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